Asymptotic observability identity for the heat equation in Rd

We build up an asymptotic observability identity for the heat equation in the whole space. It says that one can approximately recover a solution, through observing it over some countable lattice points in the space and at one time. This asymptotic identity is a natural extension of the well-known Shannon-Whittaker sampling theorem. According to it, we obtain a kind of feedback null approximate controllability for impulsively controlled heat equations. We also obtain a weak asymptotic observability identity with finitely many observation lattice points. This identity holds only for some solutions to the heat equation.