Consider the Lamé operator L(u) := μ u + (λ + μ)∇(∇·u) that arises in the theory of linear elasticity. This paper studies the geometric properties of the (generalized) Lamé eigen-function u, namely−L(u) =κu. We introduce the so-called homogeneous line segments of u in the domain, on which u, its traction or their combination via an impedance parameter is vanishing. We give a comprehensive study on characterizing the presence of one or two such line segments and its implication to the uniqueness of u. The results can be regarded as generalizing the classical Holmgren’s uniqueness principle for the Lamé operator in two aspects. We establish the results by analyzing the development of analytic microlocal singularities of u with the presence of the aforesaid line segments. Finally, we apply the results to the inverse elastic problems in establishing two novel unique identifiability results. It is shown that a generalized impedance obstacle as well as its boundary impedance can be determined by using at most four far-field patterns. Unique determination by a minimal number of far-field patterns is a longstanding problem in inverse elastic scattering theory.